Bitcoins value increase
20 Dec 2017 Each solution represents a coin or token which affects the bitcoin price. Coinmarketcap reported that on a weekly basis BTC was up by 3.3 %, while on a monthly basis, BTC had increased by 55%. After the bitcoin gold fork, the price of BTC fell to a five-day low. Other than the creation of bitcoin gold, the noticias bitcoin venezuela 4 Jan 2017 The growing optimism for the future of the web-based crypto-currency 'Bitcoin' received another boost this week as the value of 1 Bitcoin jumped above $1,000 (£815) for the first time in three years. Performed Better Than Central-Bank-Issued Currencies. On Sunday, the digital currency's 2.5% increase in Get free historical data for the BTC USD (Bitcoin US Dollar) currency pair, viewable in daily, weekly or monthly time intervals. bitcoin scripting language 29 Nov 2017 The introduction of futures would in theory increase the number of institutional investors in the Bitcoin world — thereby increasing the market's liquidity Well, if you had decided to go onto a Bitcoin exchange and buy some $100 worth of Bitcoin a year ago, it would be worth about $1,382 today, with Bitcoin bitcoin ponzi scheme india 7 Aug 2017 Bitcoin's value has jumped to a record high, following a month of turmoil. The virtual currency reached $3,451.86 (£2,651) per coin in Monday trade, according to the Coindesk Bitcoin Price Index. It had never crossed the $3,000 mark until the weekend. The market value of all bitcoins in existence has now do bitcoins increase in value Back in 2009 a guy named Kristoffer Koch, bought 5000 bitcoins for $27. Yup! That was its 'value' at that time. To mine a bitcoin, you spend computational power.
Hi folks, few days without writing. Seems IOTA has increased it's value vs bitcoin. Yesterday when bitcoin was around 3800USD IOTA was near .48USD. Right now, BTC is 3800 while IOTA is .547USD If BTC grows up to 3250… bitcoin tracking etf 10 Dec 2017 The first form of decentralized digital currency made headlines this week as Bitcoin was back in the news when its value quickly skyrocketed. One Bitcoin is currently listed as being worth over C$17,000. It was developed in 2009, with other forms of digital currency springing up on its heels. Not everyone is 3 Mar 2017 Bitcoin continues to climb, overtaking the price of gold and increasing its attractiveness to those looking for somewhere safe to invest their money. roger ver on bitcoin cash 1 day ago The total supply of bitcoin today is estimated to be around 16.80 million, according to various estimates. Its supply is increasing every day but is limited by the pace of mining, and can increase up to 21 million. As a result, its price increases in the currency exchanges depending on the pace of its popularity how to cancel bitcoin transfer 19 Jun 2015 Bitcoin Value Increases with Utility. Bitcoin is useful for many reasons. Bitcoins has all the features needed of money. It is durable, portable, fungible, scarce, divisible, and recognisable. All of this is achieved without existing physically. Bitcoin is being adopted by an increasing number of users and bitcoins value increase. May 21, 2017 The digital currency bitcoin is on another remarkable run, soaring nearly 65% in the last month, and smashing the symbolic $2,000 mark for the first time ever this week. Bitcoin has gone on tears in the past, but never quite like this. So what's behind the latest bull run? It's hard to say
May Bitcoin Recap: Price Surge Creates Increased Global Demand
30 Nov 2017 The concept of bitcoin was born in a detailed white paper published in late 2008 by a pseudonymous “Satoshi Nakamoto.” By 2013, one bitcoin was worth $12. As of this writing, it's worth more than $10,000. Its value has doubled in the last two months alone. For any currency's value to increase by 100 27 Dec 2017 It is worth noting that these losses and the ensuing news about the losses had a double effect on volatility. They reduced the overall float of Bitcoin by approximately, producing a potential lift on the value of the remaining Bitcoin due to increased scarcity. However, overriding this lift was negative effect of the 1 Dec 2017 Bitcoin price prediction is just the start: a view into how crypto will change the world by 2022. 00, with a high estimate of 259. The global smartphone penetration rate is 63%, and the total number of smartphone users is expected to increase by 1 billion by 2020. The current prediction It's expected that Litecoin, 8 Nov 2017 Most people are amazed that the price of Bitcoin has gone from $330 to hovering around $7,500 in just 24 months. That is a whopping 23-fold increase! No asset class in the world has performed better, and it seems that there is nothing stopping this bull run from reaching even greater heights. Stories of how to sell 1000 bitcoins 8 Jan 2018 Ripple would need to see a 173 percent rally from its current price to surpass bitcoin's market cap.
1 Introduction. Over the last few years, a wide range of digital currencies, such as BitCoin, LiteCoin,. PeerCoin, AuroraCoin, DogeCoin and Ripple, have emerged. The most prominent among them is BitCoin, both in terms of an impressive price development and market capitalisation. Its price increased from zero value at the 30 Nov 2017 A step-by-step guide on how the digital cryptocurrency bitcoin became worth $10000, and whether its meteoric rise will stop after 2017. The currency's quantity can only be increased if it is “mined” – a process which involves computers collecting pending bitcoin transactions and turning them into a The graph presents the evolution of bitcoin price index from January 2016 to December 2017. The bitcoin price index is This nearly tenfold increase in Bitcoin value proved to be insignificant in comparison to the price rally in November 2013, when the threshold of 1,100 U.S. dollars per coin was broken. After a period of Bitcoin Price Chart Indian Rupee (BTC/INR). Bitcoin price for today is ₹737,825.4080. It has a current circulating supply of 16.8 Million coins and a total volume exchanged of ₹179,331,849,971. Price Market Cap. Loader 20. Created with Highstock 6.0.4 21:00 22:00 23:00 28. Jan 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 bitcoin goldman Bitcoin BTC price graph info 24 hours, 7 day, 1 month, 3 month, 6 month, 1 year. Prices denoted in BTC, USD, EUR, CNY, RUR, GBP.
1 Dec 2017 The earliest mention of bitcoin in a newspaper published in Britain was in May 2011, when the International Herald Tribune published a piece noting the ninefold increase in the digital currency over its previous two months.But 2013 is a year to remember in Bitcoin since the Bitcoin value increased with use cases and innovation. The Bitcoin price started January around $13.25, hit $266 in April, crashed to $50 a week later, consolidated for about six months and then after the United States Senate hearings on Bitcoin launched to the moon and 30 Nov 2017 The initial price of bitcoin, set in 2010, was less than 1 cent. Now it's crossed $16000. Once seen as the province of nerds, libertarians and drug dealers, bitcoin today is drawing millions of dollars from hedge funds. The recent price surge may be a bubble. Or it could be a belated recognition by the broader 20 Dec 2017 All of which is to say it's been an intense year for bitcoin's value. Cryptocurrency value tracker Coindesk places the value of one bitcoin on January 1, 2017, at the price of $997.69. On December 16 of the same year, it reached $19,343, a near-2,000 percent increase in value. Had you converted $60,000 bitcoin miner rechner That means there is an economic bubble which is fueled by the "Greater Fool" theory and it is going to come crashing down. There is no value underlying the price
Bitcoin is often seen as the 'reserve currency' of the cryptocurrency world. Rises and falls to the price of Bitcoin often has a knock on effect with other cryptocurrencies. Litecoin in particular often has price reactions proportional to the rise and fall of Bitcoin price, but without the difficulty increase that Bitcoin has in respect to Charts providing a snapshot of the Bitcoin ecosystem. 31 May 2017 This is great news for anyone holding Bitcoin, but the price increase has created some unpleasant side effects for everyone transacting in BTC: an enormous increase in worldwide demand for BTC, higher transaction fees, and an overall increase in blockchain activity. Each of these points are important for 28 Nov 2013 Bitcoin soars up to $1000 in value, will it ever stop? ethereum bitcoin farkı WHAT'S BAD FOR THE ECONOMY IS GOOD FOR BITCOIN To some extent, the momentary increase or decrease in Bitcoin value runs counter to the value of traditional currencies. That is, the price of Bitcoin has tended to increase when confidence in traditional currencies has fallen. For example, the Bitcoin boom in the
5 days ago The value of bitcoin plunged last week, amid concerns that trading was going to be banned in South Korea. It then stabilised briefly, before plunging again.10 Dec 2017 A Bitcoin (virtual currency) paper wallet with QR codes and a coin are seen in an illustration picture taken at La Maison du Bitcoin in Paris, France, May 27, 2015. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier/File Photo. The first form of decentralized digital currency made headlines this week as Bitcoin was back in the news 7 Dec 2017 And since bitcoin has no fundamental value that takes the next technical target point to as far as $47,400. The closest thing he's seen that's comparable, he says, is the Cinergy and Entergy electricity contract launched by Nymex in 1998. Due to regulatory reasons it too had no natural sellers in the market 15 Dec 2017 “I don't think we've even started,” Drake said. “I think this is a nascent beginning of a brand new asset class.” Drake expects the value of bitcoin and other so-called crypto currencies to increase, thanks to the futures providing legitimacy. He even estimates it will be up to $20,000 per bitcoin by the end of the bitcoin address analysis 24 Oct 2017 As one of the world's most popular virtual baking currencies on the internet, Bitcoin is a big deal. It's been around for quite a few years, but there are still a lot of folks who don't fully understand the system. The fact that you're reading this post indicates that you may be unsure about what exactly Bitcoin is and
7 Aug 2014 Consequently, Garcia and his colleagues are able to study the Bitcoin economy using corresponding algorithms. This idea saw the light of day when they noticed that the 50,000-fold market value increase in the digital currency in just three and a half years went hand in hand with a 10,000 percent increase 24 May 2017 "We are seeing bitcoin being used more and more as an actual payment technology, and that utility is certainly going to contribute to the overall perceived value of bitcoin as a technology, and its overall stability," he said. Walpole said his company has seen increasing use of bitcoin as a payment method, In this case, the consumer would reap the profit of the bitcoin's value increase. Since an exception to the right of withdrawal in case of a payment with bitcoins cannot be justified, the consumers can use bitcoins as a means of payment even for speculative reasons, in cases where prices are denominated only in bitcoins.How much is 0.002 BTC (Bitcoins) in USD (US Dollars). Online exchange rate calculator between BTC & USD. Currencio — World Currency & Cryptocurrencies Converter. bitcoin value prediction 2017 6 Dec 2017 Bevand estimated that data centers account for 1 percent of power demand around the world, while Bitcoin mining uses 0.15 percent of global power. But with its soaring value, there's a huge incentive to invest more in hardware that extracts the digital currency. “As long as revenues increase, so will
Will Bitcoin Value Rise In 2018 Or Later? | DeepOnion Community
12 Dec 2017 While the drop made some investors jittery, particularly as every news agency under the sun calls Bitcoin a bubble, investors merely had to “hodl.” The launch of CBOE's Bitcoin futures has caused another surge in the price of the digital currency, with the futures market overheating several times and trigger Not only for BTC, but for all CRYPTO and ALT * Monitor the most RECENT prices of all CRYPTO-currencies on over 80 exchanges from all around the world. Watch the prices displayed in readable notifications right in your status bar. Along with price check, several alarm conditions can alert you about current price 14 Aug 2017 The main advantage of Bitcoin Cash is its new software that allows quicker transactions. Bitcoin is also trying to increase transaction speed by tweaking its own software. It's called "Segregated Witness," a change in bitcoin's rules that would allow people to put more transactions on each block of code used Third, the quantity available should not vary too much over time to prevent sudden changes to the price level, which could be extremely damaging to the economy. The other More and more people are becoming familiar with Bitcoin and have trust in it – and that increase in trust also means an increase in Bitcoin's value. bitcoin fast com review 19 Aug 2017 Since its establishment in 2009 the value of Bitcoin has exploded, in the past month alone the value has increased by approximately 70pc. There are several factors behind why it has increased in value;. 1) There has been an increase in awareness and demand for the currency. With only 21 million bitcoins
24 Mar 2017 However, governments cannot control the supply of bitcoin so as the currency becomes more widely used, a continuous increase in the value of bitcoin is predicted. This theory is born out of research undertaken by the World Economic Forum. Read more: Bitcoin is now worth more than gold A Bitcoin wallet is a software program where Bitcoins are stored. Bitcoins are not stored anywhere; there is a private key (secret number) for every Bitcoin address that is saved in the Bitcoin wallet of the person who owns the balance. Bitcoin wallets facilitate sending and receiving Bitcoins and gives ownership of the Bitcoin How Much was 1 Bitcoin Worth in 2009? Bitcoin was not traded on any exchanges in 2009. Its first recorded price was in 2010. Technically, Bitcoin was worth $0 in 2009 during its very first year of existence! or in bitcoins, the tax hound may sniff it out and demand to know where that money came from! A Difference Between Bitcoins and Fiat Paper Cash When it comes to capital gains, there is a very distinct difference between bitcoins and fiat paper cash. Bitcoins can increase or decrease in value while they are being held. buy bitcoin with perfect money 2 Jun 2017 Bitcoin today - the Bitcoin price is holding strong over $2400 and showing over 350% growth in value over the past year. Ethereum looking good over $225 - enormous growth in 2017. Bitcoin Value increases by 350% over the past year! Ethereum value increases by over 1500% over the past year! News
29 May 2011 Of course, this number assumes that nobody in Wall Street is greedy enough to want in on the value skyrocketing of bitcoin. In the real world, I am expecting investors to pump in more money into the system just to get their own share of that value increase. The sharks on Wall Street positively jump at the If they bought 20 bitcoin, then they own 20 bitcoin, if they have not been stolen. If they sell bitcoins, they can get US Dollars or other currency and report the profit as a gain and pay taxes. Bitcoin has gone vertical in price, and 20 bitcoin can be sold for close to $400,000. It isn't $400,000 unless they are sold for cash, real 28 Nov 2017 People needed bitcoins to participate in other cryptocurrency offerings, and Bitcoin became caught up in the general cryptocurrency euphoria. The value of ether, the second most valuable cryptocurrency, has risen more than 50-fold this year at the same time bitcoin's value has increased by a factor of 10.10 Aug 2017 The value of the shadowy digital currency known as bitcoin has jumped to record highs this month, sending shock waves through America's defense and intelligence agencies, which fear its growth signals a surge in use by terrorists, drug kingpins, white-collar criminals and Russian cybercriminals who free mining bitcoin 2017 1 hour ago Oh, and bitcoin's untethered nature also makes it highly susceptible to market manipulation. Back in 2013 fraudulent activities by a single trader appear to have caused a sevenfold increase in bitcoin's price. Who's driving the price now? Nobody knows. Some observers think North Korea may be involved.
10 Dec 2017 The value of Bitcoin skyrocketed last week. Some people question the validity of the digital currency, others think it might have drastic effects on finance.17 Jul 2017 Just six days after hitting its June low, bitcoin's price rallied almost 500 dollars to reach $2,750. The real world applications of bitcoin, such as digital peer-to-peer payments and low-cost money transfers, mean that the demand and, therefore, the value of bitcoin will likely continue to increase over time. The CoinDesk Bitcoin Price Index provides the latest and most accurate bitcoin price using an average from the world's leading exchanges.1 Dec 2017 It's clear that more people want to buy Bitcoins than sell them right now; that will drive prices higher (look at the ratio of buy vs. sell searches in Google Trends.) But as Bitcoin's total value grows, I believe the risk of a selloff increases -- and that risk may spread to other markets. Here are some hypothetical bitcoin faucet rotator software 25 May 2017 Reason 1: There are limits on how many bitcoins can ever exist. Meanwhile, there are more and more people trying to get some Bitcoins. Economics 101: Constant supply + increasing demand = higher prices; Why Bitcoin price rise? Reason 2: Mining Bitcoin (See: Top 10 Bitcoin Miners) becomes harder
13 hours ago Bitcoin's meteoric rise has whet the appetite of even the most amateur of investors - but has seen steady falls since reaching an all-time high last month.29 Nov 2017 For now, that belief is acting like rocket fuel and sending Bitcoin's value into the stratosphere. The price topped $11,400 on Wednesday morning, an increase of more than 930 percent since the start of the year. As the day progressed, prices fell again and as 3:17 p.m. New York Time they were at $9,669.79 29 Aug 2017 How much are Bitcoin Litecoin Ethereum coins predicted to be worth by 2020, 2025, 2030? No one can predict the future, so perhaps the best way to answer this question is with another impossible question, like this one from Jyri Mäkinen, who identifies on Quora as being “part of Blockchain Evolution.2 Dec 2017 But as bitcoin hits the stratosphere, there are fears an economic bubble is forming as it becomes treated less like a currency and more like a store of value, open for speculators making ever increasing bets on how far it can rise. Central bankers, who had to step in when the subprime mortgage bubble burst, moon space bitcoin 3 Jan 2017 It would be hard to find anyone who predicted Bitcoin could more than double in value in 2016. Even the most ardent proponents can only be so optimistic. My view of its price went as high as $800 by year's end, but I certainly didn't see the afterburners coming in a December Bitcoin buying spree. Where do
Bitcoin (BTC) - USD - Live streaming exchange prices, percentage
4 Jan 2014 Whenever you hold an asset, it can increase or decrease in value. When you trade the bitcoin for fiat currency, then you're trading an asset for dollars. It works the same way as when you trade gold bullion for dollars. Bartering or exchanging bitcoins for anything is also a taxable event. For example, Bob 14 Aug 2017 Bitcoin Price Analysis: Still More Room at the Top, For Now. While many In 5 days alone, the price of BTC-USD has increased its market value by 30%. Taking a look Trading and investing in digital assets like bitcoin, bitcoin cash and ether is highly speculative and comes with many risks. This analysis 7 Nov 2017 The returns expected from the altcoin bounce are significantly larger than the current value of Bitcion Segwit2x tokens. We still benefit from the fork, as it has caused our Bitcoin holdings to increase in value significantly. We can now use those BTC to buy significantly more altcoins that we could have just a 29 Nov 2017 Cryptocurrency enthusiasts are celebrating. Bitcoin's price has broken through the $10k price barrier and is reaching for the skies. But underlying the cryptocurrency mania is an irrational belief that threatens the whole financial system. do i have to pay taxes on bitcoin gains 28 Nov 2017 A single Bitcoin has hit $10,000 (£7,500) in value for the first time in the cryptocurrency's history. The digital money was trading at $10,009 per coin on the CEX IO exchange this morning, before dropping back down below this watershed mark. Over this past year, Bitcoin has seen its worth increase by 1,000
24 Dec 2017 Bitcoin has enjoyed a massive increase in value and a surge of new users over the last 12 months. Its success looks set to continue into 2018, but there are still burning questions about its future potential. It's been an absolutely mammoth year for bitcoin, as its value has risen beyond all expectations, and its 17 Jan 2018 In the past day Bitcoin has lost $3000 - and has now halved in price over a month. But given the cyber-currency is still up 900% in a year, is this just the beginning of the fall? 13 Feb 2014 I think if this option was offered to my customers it would encourage them to consider buying some bitcoin just to get the discount therefore increasing the number of new bitcoin users. If a few more retailers started to do this it would help to increase the value of bitcoin as people realise bitcoin is perpetually At this point, most expected the original 1 Nov 2017 Should Bgold succeed in taking market share away from Bitcoin, LightningASIC would benefit greatly from both mining the new altcoin and selling miners for it. Does anyone know how to calculate how much of an increase in BTC value our new coins will have with the bitcoin to egp 5 Oct 2015 The complexity of the calculation (=energy cost) increases per bitcoin created, inflating the value of each previous bitcoin to that value. The value of a bitcoin mined using renewable energy is identical to one mined with energy from fossil fuels. Bitcoins decentralise the global financial system, which scares
Answer to If the value of bitcoins increases from $250 to $500 this year, by how much will M1 increase? LO218 Dec 2017 Massive increase. Although the value of Bitcoin has receded slightly since reaching this peak, the price of the cryptocurrency has still increased stratospherically since the turn of the year. Back when 2017 dawned, Bitcoin was worth a 'mere' $1,000, meaning that its value has increased by an incredible 7 Jan 2016 As somebody with a trading background, the market dynamics of bitcoin are a constant fascination. It is still a young currency and the market has therefore spent the last few years searching for a true value, or rather a price that reflects that value. Unlike with, say, the Euro when it was launched, it is a 12 Dec 2017 A surge in the value of bitcoin has been accompanied by a rise in the risk of phishing attacks against the infrastructure that supports the cryptocurrency ecosystem. The price of bitcoin has increased sharply in recent weeks and currently stands at about $17,000, up from $12,000 a week ago and $6,000 a how to cancel bitcoin transfer Bitcoin is different from fiat currency in one important regard — governments control fiat currencies, and there is no limit to how much they can print. On the other hand, only 21 million bitcoins will ever be created. Many bitcoin proponents speculate that this limited supply will only increase the value of the cryptocurrency in
Still Don't Get Blockchain? Here's an Explanation For Five-Year- Old What is Blockchain Technology? A Step-by-Step Guide.31 Dec 2017 Bitcoin started the final day of 2017 with an increase in value, and looked set to end the year on a high note. The cryptocurrency was up more than 10% as of 6 p.m. on New Year's Eve 2017, according to data from Markets Insider. Its value was $14,129 per coin, having gained more than $1,300 in value Feb 2011 – April 2011, $1.00 Increase, Bitcoin takes parity with US dollar. 8 July 2011, $31.00 Increase, top of first "bubble", followed by the first price drop. Dec 2011, $2.00 Decrease, minimum after few months. Dec 2012, $13.00, slowly rising for a year. 11 April 2013, $266 Increase 22 Dec 2016 Data shows the majority of bitcoin trading is done in China, so any increase in demand from there tends to have a significant impact on the price. Photo: AFP. Latest News » · Budget airline AirAsia to add around 30 jets this year amid strong demand: CEO · Film Review: Padmaavat · Deals Buzz: Sequoia bitcoin on margin Entitled “Price Manipulation in the Bitcoin Ecosystem” and appearing in the recent issue of the Journal of Monetary Economics the paper describes to what 3 The Potential Manipulation of Bitcoin Prices 7. sight was to recognize that the cost of manipulation would increase dramatically in tion, and Usage: Theory and
1 day ago On the other hand, institutions are increasing their presence in the cryptocurrencies pace as well which is sure to benefit the cryptocurrencies space and would add value and credibility to the cryptocurrencies in the future as well. This is one of the main reasons why it is not seeing further fall after creating a 7 Dec 2017 The best guess is that the massive price increases are being driven by speculative investors who are watching the price skyrocket and just want to cash in. Sounds great, right? But Bitcoin isn't an investment mechanism. It's a currency, and in order for a currency to have any intrinsic value, you need to be 21 Dec 2017 To justify Bitcoin's tremendous rise, bulls like the Winklevoss twins point to Metcalfe's Law, which states that a network's value increases exponentially with each additional participant. Tyler, along with his brother Cameron, entered the national spotlight after suing Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, their 14 Dec 2017 Kain Warwick agrees, saying that for the foreseeable future, "bitcoin will continue to appreciate in price, as demand for it as a store of value increases." Warwick is the CEO of Havven, a company launching an Ethereum-backed currency that would directly rival bitcoin. He believes that bitcoin's soaring price bitcoin wallet not syncing 4 Dec 2017 “As the preeminent crypto brand, Bitcoin will continue to increase in value. We'll see an increase in adoption of crypto in general, despite the churning regulatory environment. With Bitcoin futures being added to the CME, we should see more rapid adoption on the institutional side as well. Though of course
"The bitcoins could increase in value and I wouldn't have access to them. If I wasn't able to recall the PIN, the Trezor would taunt me for the rest of my life." 6:02 AM - 27 Dec 2017. 22 Retweets; 52 Likes; Aoife J. B. Michael Zaladonis Shalisa Hayes Kyle M TH3009 Y Halo Thar Ashish Chauhan BSE 29 Jan 2014 Starting out in 2009 at a mere $0.30 per bitcoin, the virtual currency is now worth more than $800 per bitcoin, with an overall value increase of more than 2,000 percent in less than five years. Car dealerships, casinos, grocery stores, restaurants and other businesses such as and Virgin 26 Nov 2017 Bitcoin, currently the most valuable cryptocurrency in the world, has crossed another all-time high after surpassing the $9000 mark on Sunday, Bitcoins Value Crosses $9,000 Mark The price of bitcoin has fluctuated nine times in 2017, leading to an increase in interest from institutional investors.20 Nov 2017 Bitcoin was introduced in 2009 by a mysterious programmer known only as Satoshi Nakamoto, which is thought to be a pseudonym, and who has never given an interview. Previously the domain of technology-friendly libertarians, bitcoin has shot to mainstream financial attention after its value increased by convertir dolares a bitcoin 9 Oct 2017 Bitcoin has been projected to continue increasing in value, and this only shows that it is never too late to invest in the cryptocurrency. The bitcoin price is attractive now because it was initially designed to continue appreciating. This cryptocurrency is highly sought after by speculators, and many venture